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As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
  • Images meant for inclusion in the article have either been published by the copyright holder under a creative commons license, or the author has requested permission to use images from the copyright holder.

Hard Times – Style Sheet


Word- or RTF-files accepted only. Articles that are formatted differently will be disregarded.

Standard formatting

  • Word- or RTF-file
  • Please hand in text and illustration files separately from each other.
  • Margins are to be 2.5 cm everywhere
  • 1.5-spaced
  • Times New Roman, 12 pt
  • Do not paginate!
  • No automatic hyphenation, please.
  • No automatic formatting of headings and subheadings. Please mark them bold, but do not use any other formatting devices.
  • Use „typographic quotation marks“ only, please.
  • Doubled quotation marks for short quotations
  • Single quotation marks within the quotation and for ironic speech
  • Technical terms and terms in foreign languages in italics, please
  • Longer quotations without quotation marks, but in italics, not indented
  • Mark paragraphs by a line break, please
  • Do not use tab-stops, please
  • Use endnotes instead of footnotes, use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3 etc.)
  • Please include a complete 'Bibliography' (MLA style)

Length of the articles

          Up to 3000 words


Please hand in at least three illustrations per article. During our meeting, the transition to online combined with print-on-demand publication was unanimously confirmed. The move online will, however, require particular vigilance regarding possible copyright infringements of any pictures used in the magazine.

All future guest editors and contributors should, therefore, be aware that for all images not published by the copyright holder under a creative commons license, they will have to request permission to use images from the copyright holder.

It is likely that a limited number of film stills may be legitimately used without requesting permission as long as they are vital to the argument made in the text, ie the image itself is discussed and analysed. Purely decorative film stills may only be used with permission from the copyright holder, with the author of the relevant article responsible for requesting permission and paying any fees the copyright holder may require for such use. The same applies to film posters etc.

Book covers, too, may only be used if either the cover itself is analysed in the text, or if permission from the copyright holder has been previously obtained. Be aware that even your own photograph or scan of a book cover infringes copyright.

We cannot give exhaustive legal guidance on copyright, therefore, ultimately, it is the authors’ responsibility to seek legal advice where appropriate and decide upon the use of images in accordance with that advice. Legal and financial responsibility for any copyright infringement will remain with individual authors rather than the editors of the magazine

Texts and illustrations need to be sent in separately.

Please mark the precise caption for each illustration or image in bold within the text (and the subtitles in [square brackets] if applicable). The names of image and file should correspond.

You may send in the illustrations either as electronic files (high definition scans with at least 300 dpi or better 600 dpi in a jpg format), paper print-out or as a very good laser-copy.


The authors or guest editors are asked to use sub-headings (as many as possible) in each article. Please also provide and think about additional material or parts that can be printed in separate boxes.

Foot- and endnotes

Only use endnotes. Please use as few as possible. Remember Hard Times is a cultural journal, not an academic one and the articles’ style has to be adapted to journalistic standards rather than to academic ones.

Bibliographic annotations

Bibliographic annotations have to be complete (MLA style).

Example: Name, first name (year). Title. Place: publisher, page numbers.


Deadlines have to be adhered to absolutely.